Author Archives: Lars Kurth

About Lars Kurth

Lars Kurth is a highly effective, passionate community manager with strong experience of working with open source communities (Symbian, Symbian DevCo, Eclipse, GNU) and currently is community manager for xen.org. Lars has 9 years of experience building and leading engineering teams and a track record of executing several change programs impacting 1000 users. Lars has 16 years of industry experience in the tools and mobile sector working at ARM, Symbian Ltd, Symbian Foundation and Nokia. Lars has strong analytical, communication, influencing and presentation skills, good knowledge of marketing and product management and extensive background in C/C , Java and software development practices which he learned working as community manager, product manager, chief architect, engineering manager and software developer. If you want to know more, check out uk.linkedin.com/in/larskurth. Personally, Lars has a wide range of interests such as literature, theatre, cinema, cooking and gardening. He is particularly fascinated by orchids and carnivorous plants and has built a rather large collection of plants from all over the world. His love for plants extends into a passion for travel, in particular to see plants grow in their native habitats.

Celebrating 15 Years of the Xen Project and Our Future

In the 1990s, Xen was a part of a research project to build a public computing infrastructure on the Internet led by Ian Pratt and Keir Fraser at The University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory. The Xen Project is now one of the most popular open source hypervisors and amasses more than 10 million users, and this October marks our 15th anniversary.

From its beginnings, Xen technology focused on building a modular and flexible architecture, a high degree of customizability, and security. This security mindset from the outset led to inclusion of non-core security technologies, which eventually allowed the Xen Project to excel outside of the data center and be a trusted source for security and embedded vendors (ex. Qubes, Bromium, Bitdefender, Star Labs, Zentific, Dornerworks, Bosch, BAE systems), and also
a leading hypervisor contender for the automotive space.

As the Xen Project looks to a future of virtualization everywhere, we reflect back on some of our major achievements over the last 15 years. To celebrate, we’ve created an infographic that captures some of our key milestones share it on social.

A few community members also weighed in on some of their favorite Xen Project moments and what’s to come:

“Xen offers best-in-class isolation and separation while preserving nearly bare-metal performance on x86 and ARM platforms. The growing market for a secure hypervisor ensures Xen will continue to grow in multiple markets to meet users demands.”
– Doug Goldstein, Software Developer V, Hypervisors at Rackspace

“Xen started life at the University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory, as part of the XenoServers research project to build a public computing infrastructure on the Internet. It’s been fantastic to see the impact of Xen, and the role it’s played at the heart of what we now call Infrastructure as a Service Cloud Computing. It’s been an incredible journey from Xen’s early beginnings in the University, to making our first open source release in 2003, to building a strong community of contributors around the project, and then Xen’s growth beyond server virtualization into end-user systems and now embedded devices. Xen is a great example of the power of open source to enable cooperation and drive technological progress.”
– Ian Pratt, Founder and President at Bromium, and Xen Project Founder

“From its beginnings as a research project, able to run just a handful of Linux VMs, through being the foundation of many of the world’s largest clouds, to being the open-source hypervisor of choice for many next-generation industrial, automotive and aeronautical applications, Xen Project has shown its adaptability, flexibility and pioneering spirit for 15 years. Today, at Citrix, Xen remains the core of our Citrix Hypervisor platform, powering the secure delivery of applications and data to organizations across the globe. Xen Project Hypervisor allows our customers to run thousands of virtual desktops per server, many of them using Xen’s ground-breaking GPU virtualization capabilities. Happy birthday, Xen!”
– James Bulpin, Senior Director of Technology at Citrix

“The Xen open source community is a vibrant and diverse platform for collaboration, something which is important to Arm and vital to the ongoing success of our ecosystem. We’ve contributed to the Xen open source hypervisor across a range of markets starting with mobile, moving into the strategic enablement that allowed the deployment of Arm-based cloud servers, and more recently focusing on the embedded space, exploring computing in safety-sensitive environments such as connected vehicles.”
– Mark Hambleton, Vice President of Open Source Software, Arm

“I – like many others – associate cloud computing with Xen. All my cloud-related projects are tied to companies running large deployments of Xen. These days even my weekend binge-watching needs are satisfied by a Xen instance somewhere. With Xen making its way into cars, rocket launch operations and satellites, it’s safe to say the industry at large recognizes it as a solid foundation for building the future, and I’m excited to be a part of it.”
– Mihai Dontu, Chief Linux Officer at Bitdefender

“Xen was the first open source hypervisor for the data center, the very foundation of the cloud as we know it. Later, it pioneered virtualization for embedded and IoT, making its way into set-top boxes and smaller ARM devices. Now, we are discussing automotive, medical and industrial devices. It is incredibly exciting to be part of a ground-breaking project that has been at the forefront of open source innovation since its inception.”
– Stefano Stabellini, Principal Engineer, Tech Lead at Xilinx and Xen on ARM Committer and Maintainer

“Congratulations to the Xen Project on this milestone anniversary. As the first open source data center hypervisor, Xen played a key role in defining what virtualization technology could deliver and has been the foundation for many advancements in the modern data center and cloud computing. Intel has been involved with Xen development since the early days and enjoys strong collaboration with the Xen community, which helped make Xen the first hypervisor to include Intel® Virtualization Technology (VT-x) support, providing a more secure, efficient platform for server workload consolidation and the growth of cloud computing.”
– Susie Li, Director of Open Source Virtualization Engineering, Intel Corp.

“It is amazing how a project that started 15 years ago has not lost any of its original appeal, despite the constant evolution of hardware architectures and new applications that were unimaginable when the Xen Project started. In certain segments, e.g. power management, the pace of innovation in Xen is just accelerating and serves as the ultimate reference for all other virtualization efforts. Happy quinceañera (sweet 15) Xen!”
– Vojin Zivojnovic, CEO and Co-Founder of Aggios

Building the Journey Towards the Next 15 Years; Sneak Peek into Xen Project 4.12
The next Xen Project release is set for March 2019. The release continues to support the Xen Project’s efforts around security with cloud environments and rich features and architectural changes for automotive and embedded use cases. Expect:

  • Deprivileged Device Model: Under tech preview in QEMU 3.0, the feature adds extra restrictions to a device model running in domain 0 in order to prevent a compromised device model to attack the rest of the system.  
  • Capability to compile a PV-only version of Xen giving cloud providers simplified management, reducing the surface of attack, and the ability to build a Xen Project hypervisor configuration with no “classic” PV support at all.
  • Xen to boot multiple domains in parallel on Arm, in addition to dom0 enabling booting of domains in less than 1 second. This is the first step towards a dom0-less Xen, which impacts statically configured embedded systems that require very fast boot times.  
  • Reduction of codesize to 46 KSLOC for safety certification and the first phase of making the codebase MISRA C compliant.
    • MISRA C is a set of software development guidelines for the C programming language developed by the Motor Industry Software Reliability Association with the aim to facilitate code safety, security, portability, and reliability in the context of embedded systems.

Thank you for the last 15 years and for the next 15+ to come!
Lars Kurth, Chairperson of the Xen Project

P.S. If you want more insight on why Xen has been so successful, check out this recent talk from Open Source Summit Europe!

 

A Recap of the Xen Project Developer and Design Summit: Community Health, Development Trends, Coding Changes and More

We were extremely thrilled to host our Xen Project Developer and Design Summit in Nanjing Jiangning, China this June. The event brought together our community and power users under one roof to collaborate and to learn more about the future of our project. It also gave us the opportunity to connect with a large group of our community who is based in China. We’ve seen a steady stream of Xen Project hypervisor adoption in this region.

If you were unable to attend the event, we have recordings of the presentations, and we also have the slideshares from the presentation available. Please check them out!

During our event, we always start with a weather report on the Xen Project. It covers areas that we are improving upon, where we need more support, and also the potential direction of the project. This blog covers information from the weather report as well as next steps and focus areas for the project.

Community Health
Code commits for the hypervisor have on average grown by 11% YoY since 2014. Commits in the first 5 months of 2018 have grown 11% compared to the same period last year. The top 6 contributors to the project since 2011 have been Citrix, Suse, AMD, Arm, Intel, Oracle. This is also true for the last 12 months in which 90% of contributions came from the top 6 players.

However, we have seen a larger than normal volume of contributions from Arm and AMD, which contributed twice as much as in previous years. In addition, EPAM is establishing itself on the top table with first contributions and a significant number of code reviews.  In addition, AWS started to make first significant code contributions in 2017.

Hardware security issues had an impact on the code review process of the project and thus on the project’s capability to take in some code. In other words, x86 related development that was not directly attributed to hardware security issues were slowed down, because developers normally reviewing contributions had less bandwidth to do so.

This has forced the community to make some changes that are starting to have a positive effect: x86 developers across companies are collaborating more and better, meaning that hardware security issues in 2018 had a smaller impact on the community than those in 2017.

Innovation and Development Trends
Unikraft, a Xen Project sub-project, is on a healthy growth projection. Unikraft aims to simplify the process of building unikernels through a unified and customizable code base. It was created after Xen Project Developer and Design Summit 2017.

The project recently upstreamed a significant amount of functionality, including:

  • Scheduling support, better/more complete support for KVM/Xen/Linux. Supporting Xen/KVM allows Unikraft to cater to a larger set of potential users/companies. Linux user-space provides an excellent development environment: Unikraft users can create their Unikraft unikernels as a Linux executable, use Linux’s wide range of debugging and performance optimization tools, and when done simply re-compile as a KVM or Xen unikernel (work on creating x86/Arm bare metal images is ongoing).
  • A release of newlib (a libc-like library) and lwip (a network stack: This support allows Unikraft to compile with most applications. It is a basic requirement to support a potentially wide range of applications.
  • The project is beginning to pick up traction with contributions coming from companies like NEC, Arm, and Oracle.

For more information check out the following two presentations: Unikraft and Unikraft on Arm.

We have been re-writing the x86 core. We are working on adding complex new CPU hardware features such as support for NVDIMMs and SGX. In addition, we are working on making technologies that have been used by security-conscious vendors in non-server environments ready to be used in server virtualization and cloud computing; support for measured boot is an example.

Another key innovation is a project called Panopticon, which aims to re-write some portions of the hypervisor to make Xen resilient to all types of side-channel attacks by removing unnecessary information about guests from the hypervisor.

You can find presentations related to these topics here (x86 evolution) and here (side-channel attacks and mitigations).

Continued Growth in Embedded and Automotive
We are seeing continued contributions within the embedded and automotive space to Xen Project Core with new features and functionality, including:

  • Co-processor (GPU) sharing framework enabling virtualization of co-processors such as FPGAs, DRMs, etc.
  • 2nd generation Power management and HPM on Arm  – this enables a huge reduction in power consumption, which is significant for some embedded market segments.
  • RTOS based Dom0 and code size reduction – this reduces the cost of safety certification significantly and is important for market segments where safety certification is important (such as automotive, avionics, medical, etc). We already managed to get Xen code size on Arm to below 45K SLOC and we expect that Dom0 will also be below 50K SLOC. This makes it possible to safety certify a Xen based stack to DAL C ASIL-B/C standards at a cost equivalent to less than 10 years.
  • Improved startup latency to boot multiple VMs in parallel from the device tree – this opens up the use of Xen to small IoT and embedded devices and allows booting of a complete Xen system in milliseconds compared to seconds. In addition, it halves the cost of safety certifications for systems where a Dom0 is not necessary

You can see the progress of our re-architecture in our latest release, Xen Project hypervisor 4.11. Also, the following summit presentations were relevant: here (Xen and automotive at Samsung) here (CPUFreq) and here (Real-time support).

These are just a few features and updates that make it easier for Xen to be used in embedded environments and market segments where safety certification is relevant. In addition, this will also significantly improve BoM and security in other market segments. On x86 we are also reducing code size, but this is significantly harder because of backward compatibility guarantees for x86 hardware and older operating systems.

Conclusion
The event was a great success with a lot of community and technical topics, like “How to Get Your Code Into Xen” and “The Art of Virtualizing Cache Maintenance.” Find the playlist for the full conference here. Additionally, our design sessions focused on architecture, embedded and safety, security, performance, and working practices and processes. You can find what was discussed, and next steps with these areas on our wiki.

If you want to stay abreast of where and when the Xen Project Developer and Design Summit will be held next year, follow us on Facebook and Twitter.

Xen Project 4.10.1 Available

I am pleased to announce the release of 4.10.1. Xen Project Maintenance releases are released in line with our Maintenance Release Policy. We recommend that all users of the 4.10 stable series update to the latest point release.

These releases are available from their git repositories

xenbits.xen.org/gitweb/?p=xen.git;a=shortlog;h=refs/heads/stable-4.10 (tag RELEASE-4.10.1)

or from the XenProject download page

www.xenproject.org/downloads/xen-archives/xen-project-410-series/xen-4101.html

These releases contain many bug fixes and improvements. For a complete list of changes, please check the lists of changes on the download pages.

Announcing the Xen Project 4.11 RC and Test Day Schedules

On Tuesday, we created Xen 4.11 RC1 and will release a new release candidate every FRIDAY, until we declare a release candidate as the final candidate and cut the Xen 4.11 release. We will also hold a Test Day every TUESDAY for the release candidate that was released the week prior to the Test Day starting from RC1. Note that RC’s are announced on the following mailing lists: xen-announce, xen-devel and xen-users. This means we will have Test Days on April 24th, May 1st, 8th, 15th and 22nd. Your testing is still valuable on other days, so please feel free to send Test Reports as outlined below at any time.

Getting, Building and Installing a Release Candidate

Release candidates are available from our git repository at

git://xenbits.xenproject.org/xen.git (tag 4.11.0-<rc>)

where <rc> is rc1, rc2, rc3, etc. and as tarball from

https://downloads.xenproject.org/release/xen/4.11.0-<rc>/xen-4.11.0-<rc>.tar.gz
https://downloads.xenproject.org/release/xen/4.11.0-<rc>/xen-4.11.0-<rc>.tar.gz.sig

Detailed build and Install instructions can be found on the Test Day Wiki. Make sure you check the known issues section of the instructions before trying to download an RC.

Testing new Features, Test and Bug Reports

You can find Test Instructions for new features on our Test Day Wiki and instructions for general tests on Testing Xen. The following pages provide information on how to report successful tests and how to report bugs and issues.

Happy Testing!

The Xen Project is participating in 2018 Summer round of Outreachy

This is a quick reminder that the Xen Project is again participating in Outreachy (May 2018 to August 2018 Round). Please check the Outreachy application page for more information.

Outreach Program for Women has been helping women (cis and trans), trans men, and genderqueer people get involved in free and open source software worldwide. Note that the program has been extended and is now also open to people from other groups underrepresented in FOSS: specifically the program is open to residents and nationals of the United States of any gender who are Black/African American, Hispanic/Latin, American Indian, Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian, or Pacific Islander. Information on Eligibility and the application process can be found here.

Meet us at FOSDEM 2018

As in the past, the Xen Project will have a booth at Europe’s biggest open source conference FOSDEM (taking place February 3rd and 4th in Brussels, Belgium).

Where?

During FOSDEM community volunteers will man our booth, which is located in bulding K (level 1, group C).

fosdem-event-2018

Meet the Team!

You will have the opportunity to speak to some of our developers: Anthony Perard (Maintainer of various components and qemu developer, Citrix), Daniel Kiper (Xen and Grub developer, Oracle) – Daniel will be mostly on the Grub booth, Ian Jackson (Committer and maintainer of various components, Citrix), Lars Kurth (Community Manager, Citrix), Roger Pau Monné (Maintainer of various components most recently PVH, Citrix), Simon Kainzer (Project Lead of Unikraft, NEC) and Wim ten Have (Xen and libvirt developer, Oracle). We also have Julien Fontanet (CTO, Vates) and Olivier Lambert (CEO, Vates) from Xen Orchestra at our booth!

We also have a few talks in the Virtualisation Devroom.